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104                                        FLORA   INDTCA.
meridian east of the Ganges; and the only important excep-
tions known to us are another species of Hclicia iii Ceylon,
Lagenophora in the same island, and the curious genera Aero-
trema and Schumacheria of Dilleniacea, which are more nearly
allied to Australian forms of that Order than to any others,
and of which Schumacheria is confined to Ceylon, Arrotrema
being also found in the Malayan peninsula and in Malabar.
2. The Malayan Archipelago type.This forms the bulk
of the Flora of the perennially humid regions of India; as of
the whole Malayan peninsula,, the upper Assam valley, the
Khasia mountains, the ^forests of the base of the Himalaya
from the Bramaputra to Nipal, of the Malabar coast, and
of Ceylon. It is of course impossible, to specify the ^enera
or even families of so predominant an clement; to do so
would he to enumerate a very largo proportion of the Indian
genera, and to except only the north temperate and the com-
paratively few African types. The extent, however, to which
this clement predominates is not yet appreciated, nor do we
ourselves know its total amount; for constantly, during our
examination of the temperate as well as tropical plants of
the Nilghiri, Khasia, Ceylon, and the Himalaya, wo find them
identical in species with Javanese mountain plants. That
botanists have neglected comparing these Indian plants with
Javanese Floras is not surprising, when it is considered how
remote Java is from any part of continental India,, and that
geographical isolation is by many considered equivalent to
specific difference. We arc, however, convinced, after a very
careful examination, that there arc several plants, aw GVu//-
tAeria nummularia, which extend into the North-west Hi-
malaya, and arc also found in the Javanese mountains, which
are nearly 3000 miles distant: some of these have already
been found in intermediate localities, as the Gattlthma,
which occurs along the whole Himalayan range, and in the
Khasia, and which will probably be found in the mountains
of the Malay peiiimwla and of Sumatra; and then; are manv
other Java plants which arc more uniformly spread over the